WHAT ARE OUTCOMES OR LEARNING OUTCOMES?
1. Outcomes are demonstrations of learning. They are general in that they either sum up a group of other outcomes or a group of tasks.
Outcomes can demonstrate very general life and work skills such as:
• Solve problems
General occupational skills such as:
• Sell products (retail management)
• Relate engineering activity to environmental problems (engineering)
More focussed occupational or learning skills such as:
• Approach customers and establish needs (retail management)
• Relate a local environmental issue to a theoretical issue (engineering)
We can break down these outcomes into tasks which we would ask learners to perform in order to achieve the outcomes. For example, with the occupational outcomes:
Approach customers and establish needs (retail management)
• Interview 10 students on campus and establish and justify a retail need …
• Choose a local retail store and interview 10 customers to establish a need
Relate a local environmental issue to a theoretical issue (engineering)
• Koeberg provides a safe, efficient and cheap source of power for Cape Town. Discuss this statement in terms of …
• Why do some researchers regard wood stoves in urban areas as more environmentally-friendly than electric stoves?
2. When we assess outcomes we must make sure that we assess applied competence and that we assess attitudes and values. Attitudes and values typically refer to willingness to work in a group and a hierarchy and to listen and respect the opinions of others, being willing and confident to do tasks, being willing to learn from mistakes and from others (rather than giving up), being culturally sensitive and being environmentally sensitive, amongst others. Many of these attitudes/values are reflected in the CCFOs.
• The Critical Cross Field Outcomes
• Solve problems
• Collect, analyse and organise information
• Plan and organise one’s own and others activities
• Communicate effectively, including mathematically and graphically
• Work with others in teams
• Participate responsibly in communities
• Use technology
• Learn from experiences/learn to learn more effectively
• Show responsibility to others and the environment
• Develop entrepreneurial abilities
• Be culturally sensitive